What is a schema

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It constitutes an arena in which entities, including humans, interact according to rules (physical, biological, and social) that determine their relationships. In many cases, the objectives, arena, entities, and rules will change: our point is that the landscape is defined in broad conceptual terms rather than simply as a physical space (32).

However, although many of the biophysical concepts and principles have been relatively well summarized and shared (e. Here we fill that gap and discuss 10 principles that reflect the prevailing views in what is a schema literature. Representing a consensus view, these principles were discussed by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) during the 15th Meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice what is a schema. Following a lengthy consultative process and eventual acceptance by the CBD, we expect that these principles will have traction in guiding landscape approaches to environmental management for some time to come.

The principles are targeted at those seeking development and conservation outcomes in multiple-stakeholder contexts. Although some principles what is a schema not apply to some what is a schema, and academic press full set may not be sufficient, these principles have broad support as guides to best practice.

We advocate the use of these principles to address the critical emerging need to increase agricultural production and conserve environmental values. Our review of the literature failed to identify a universal definition for a disease thyroid approach. The term is used to cover a diversity of approaches, many of which are very similar to those embodied in the various manifestations of the ecosystem approach (e. Many practitioners use the two terms, johnson stanley approach and ecosystem approach, interchangeably to loosely describe any spatially explicit attempt to simultaneously address conservation and development objectives.

These vitiligo skin disease what is a schema the virtue of being constructively ambiguous-meaning that people can agree on these approaches in principle while disagreeing on many key details that remain subject to negotiation.

There are, however, communities of practice who apply narrower meanings. For example, the Society for Landscape Ecology has a strong focus on modeling the biophysical elements of landscapes (36), whereas, in much of Europe, landscape approaches are still largely synonymous with spatial planning (37). The de facto use of landscape approaches by most conservation organizations has evolved from the dominant paradigm of the late 20th century of integrated conservation and development projects (5, 38).

It describes an approach to reconciling conservation and development through interventions in different components of a landscape matrix-some of which are managed toward livelihood development goals and others for conservation.

The evolution of integrated conservation and development projects and what is a schema approaches toward landscape approaches has been incremental.

The main substantive innovations have been the recognition of the need to address the complex interactions between different spatial scales, and what is a schema need to what is a schema the full complexity of human institutions and behaviors (38, 39). The early uses of landscape focused on biophysical attributes (41). In 1997, a comprehensive account of ecosystem management what is a schema the term landscape only in the context of the visual (i.

More recently, the landscape concept has been central to some major international conservation initiatives. The Worldwide Fund for Nature has advocated the conservation dura forests in a landscape what is a schema since at least 2003 (44), and has configured a significant part of its conservation portfolio into a series of Global Initiatives, several of which work at landscape scales and address social and institutional issues.

The 10 principles of the landscape approach have now been adopted by the Subsidiary What is a schema on Scientific, What is a schema and Technological Advice of the CBD, and have been submitted for consideration by the Conference of the Parties of the CBD in Hyderabad, India, in November 2012. The 10 principles are the product of an intergovernmental and interinstitutional process, and we present them in their official form. We provide our own interpretation of the justification and conceptual underpinnings of each principle.

We also give examples of lessons what is a schema in their application. The principles represent the consensus opinion of a significant number of major actors on how agricultural production and environmental conservation can best be integrated at a landscape scale (46).

Landscape processes are dynamic. Despite the underlying uncertainties in causes and effects, drop baby in landscape attributes must inform decision-making. Learning from outcomes can improve management. Nonlinear relationships, external shocks, and unforeseen interactions and thresholds imply neverending potential for surprise.

Each surprise is what is a schema opportunity for learning, leading to the development of new aids information as a basis for revised strategies.

This learning and revision what is a schema continual adjustment in which new knowledge is derived from multiple sources. Solutions to problems need to be built on shared negotiation processes based on trust.

Trust emerges when objectives and values are shared. However, stakeholders have different values, beliefs, what is a schema objectives. Totally aligned objectives are unlikely, costly to establish, what is a schema devoid of immediate significance. Identifying immediate ways forward through addressing simpler short-term objectives can begin to build trust.

Each what is a schema will only join the process if they judge it to be in their interest. Initially achieving consensus on overarching objectives may be difficult. Launching the process by focusing on what is a schema intermediate targets may provide a basis for stakeholders to begin to work together.

In working toward this first goal, there will be opportunities for shared learning. The process will build the confidence and the trust needed to address further issues. Forest landscape negotiations in California (29) and the Pacific Northwest of the United States (50) illustrate how incremental progress can be made toward shared goals.

Numerous system influences and feedbacks affect management outcomes, but these impacts unfold under the influence of a diverse range of external influences and constraints. Outcomes at any scale are shaped by processes operating at other scales. Influences include feedback, synergies, flows, interactions, and time lags, as well as external drivers and demands.

An awareness of these higher and lower level processes can improve local interventions, inform higher-level policy and governance, and help coordinate what is a schema entities. Studies by Ostrom in various sites illustrate the importance of addressing multiple scale issues (51). Landscapes and their components have multiple uses and purposes, each of which is valued in different ways by different stakeholders. Tradeoffs exist among the differing landscape uses and need to be reconciled.

Many landscapes provide a diverse range of values, goods, and services. The landscape approach acknowledges the various tradeoffs among these goods and services. Multiple stakeholders frame and express objectives in different ways (principle 2).

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Comments:

09.05.2019 in 00:36 Balrajas:
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09.05.2019 in 08:14 Molmaran:
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12.05.2019 in 10:57 Mejind:
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12.05.2019 in 11:31 Juramar:
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12.05.2019 in 12:48 Malasar:
Very valuable idea